Asialink 藝術進駐經理及Res Ar tis 副會長
近年來藝術機構對於藝術進駐的認知，已漸從過去單向、一次性的單純補助，轉向探索雙向、長期的穩定交流，深化機構自身與藝術世界的聯繫，甚至扮演領頭羊的角色。由Asialink藝術進駐項目經理暨Res Artis副會長Eliza Roberts分享自身機構的營運模式，恰正反映當前全球藝術村在營運管理及發展上面臨的重要議題：網絡、交換、互助。
成立於1991年的Asialink隸屬於澳洲墨爾本大學，致力擴展澳洲與亞洲之間的文化交流，透過巡迴展覽、藝術進駐、研究計畫、出版等途徑，創造新的文化交換模式及平台，推進亞洲對於「伙伴關係」亞洲網絡串聯概念的推進（partnership）、「合作」（collaboration）及「互助」（reciprocity）等概念的認識。如對「資源」的界定不限於實質的經費贊助，更擴及與Asialink相關的藝術機構及人際關係網絡，透過合作機構與成員提供如人際網絡、法律諮詢或是進駐空間等方式，以互助合作的方式強化彼此的伙伴關聯。Asialink開放視覺藝術、表演藝術、寫作及藝術管理等四大領域的工作者申請，更有意識地透過進駐項目擴大交流的範疇及可能，如在其提供的申請項目類別中，除了常見的申請進駐Asialink合作機構、自行申請及交換駐村外，更規畫「藝術進駐實驗室」（Art Residency Laboratory），邀請不同領域的專業工作者相互交流，擴大藝術進駐所能觸及的範疇，實驗藝術與文化交換的新模式，如於2014年的「Kerjasama」計畫由澳洲原住民藝術家Karla Dickens與印尼視覺藝術家Doni Maulistya共同合作，促進亞洲藝術家對於澳洲原住民文化的瞭解；補助日本藝術家福原志保（Shiho Fukuhara）進駐澳洲西部大學（University of Western Australia）SymbioticA實驗室，進行藝術與生物研究的對等交流。除致力於外部資源的串聯外，鑒於Asialink為數眾多的獲補助者亦是機構的重要資源，故近年亦積極統整獲補助者的最新動向，強化內部成員彼此的聯繫管道及頻率，皆凸顯Asialink對於合作交流的重視與努力。
相較於Asialink以澳洲為據點，擴展與亞洲區域之間的串聯合作，Res Artis則專注於全球藝術進駐的脈動，它定期在世界各地舉行會員大會，同時也會舉辦區域性的聚會，如去年由Asialink在墨爾本主辦的亞澳歐創意進駐網絡（Asia Australia Europe Creative Residency Network，簡稱AAECRN）。安排聚焦於全球文化交流的會議及活動，Res Artis不僅探詢當今文化交流的挑戰，促進營運管理及實務知識上的資源共享，並且試圖擴大他們現有網絡與其他重要的地域性串聯，如On The Move、TransArtists 與Alliance of Artist Communities 等。
Asialink Arts Residencies Manager and Vice-President of Res Artis
In recent years, art institutions’ understanding of artist-in-residency has changed from unilateral and once-for-all subsidy to bilateral and longterm exchange. These institutions strive for stronger connections to the art world, and even play the role of pioneers in this aspect. As the Manager of Asialink’s Arts Residency Program and Vice-President of Res Artis, Eliza Roberts introduced the operation mode of Asialink that exactly reflects the operational, managerial, and developmental issues faced by international artist villages: networks, exchange, and reciprocity.
As an affiliation to the University of Melbourne, Asialink was founded in 1991, since when it has been devoting itself to Asian-Australian cultural exchange by virtue of touring exhibitions, artist-in-residence programs, research projects, and publications. It successfully established a new mode and a constructive platform for cultural exchange that greatly promote Asia’s understanding about the concepts of partnership, collaboration, and reciprocity. Its definition of “resources” is not confined to financial sponsorship but extended to Asialink’s partner institutions and personal networks. In other words, the partnership is reinforced by collaboration and reciprocity achieved through interpersonal networking, legal consultation, and residential space provision. Asialink not only provides opportunities of residencies for practitioners in the fields of visual art, performing art, writing and arts management, but also consciously broadens the scope and possibility of exchange. In addition to the application for residence in Asialink’s partner institutions, self-application, and exchange of residence, Aisalink organizes Art Residency Laboratory for the purpose of gathering professionals in different fields, thereby extending the reach of artist-in-residence programs and performing experiments on new modes of artistic and cultural exchange. For example, the Kerjasama project carried out in 2014 was the collaboration between Australian aboriginal artist Karla Dickens and Indonesian visual artist Doni Maulistya, which facilitated Asian artists’ understanding of Australian Aboriginal culture. The Laboratory also subsidized Japanese artist Shiho Fukuhara’s residence in SymbioticA Laboratory of the University of Western Australia, in which she will engage in the exchange between the disciplines of art and biology. Asialink not only devotes considerable effort to connecting external resources, but also treats the receivers of its subsidies as significant resources. In recent years, Asialink has been trying to trace the development of these subsidy receivers, thereby improving the communication among its members and partners. All these practices manifest Asialink’s emphasis on and efforts in collaboration and exchange.
Asialink treats Australia as its base, from which it establishes connections and collaborative relationships with Asian regions. By way of comparison, Res Artis focuses on global activity in the field. It regularly holds General Meetings in different locations throughout the world, as well as regional meetings such as the Asia Australia Europe Creative Residency Network (AAECRN), hosted by Asialink in Melbourne last year. Organizing meetings and activities focusing on the cultural exchange world-wide, Res Artis not only explores the challenges confronting contemporary cultural exchange, but also facilitates resource-sharing in the aspects of practical knowledge, operation, and management. Res Artis seeks to expand their existing connections with other important regional networks such as On The Move, TransArtists and the Alliance of Artists Communities.
Alliance of Artists Communities 代表，Hermitage Ar tist Retreat 執行總監
根基於美國的Alliance of Artists Communities（以下簡稱AAC），其角色類同於全球性的藝術村機構Res Artis，屬於資訊匯流整合之平台。其平台針對對象，誠如其名，著重於藝術村間的資訊彙整，並針對各項機構營運議題，做深入研究；此外也同時提供藝術家一處完善的進駐資訊研究平台。Bruce Rodgers，作為AAC董事成員之一，除代表AAC出席與談外，也以駐村單位The Hermitage Artist Retreat（以下簡稱Hermitage）執行總監的身份，提供另一切入點。
在AAC諸多使命之中，可被歸結於三項重點：提供專業發展資訊、研究服務和需求之間的斷層議題（research the gap）以及強化機構間之橫向串聯。Rodgers對AAC的介紹切入點，由自身經營的藝術村Hermitage開始。作為一個外行人介入駐村經營此區塊，Rodgers自認是一項優勢，他寄望Hermitage能以非傳統模式建立：以「邀請式進駐」（curated residency）做為方法經營。其概念為Hermitage起始於一人營運之藝術村，以此人力吃緊的狀態，很難進行公開徵件。Rodgers反向思考，認為如以邀請式進駐，此方法也許更能作為藝術家事業上的助力，也由於AAC之引導協助，Hermitage成了別具特色之駐村單位。
AAC透過各式的媒介，提供駐村機構「資源彙整平台」（The Ultimate Resource Guide），此為針對新創立之機構的指導，協助簡化初始創立的諸多細瑣繁雜事項，如同於提供行政事務上的參考模版供其使用。這樣的指導範疇，涵蓋了各式不同類型之駐村機構。Rodgers認為，正因為駐村單位跟博物館、劇場等機構不同，才讓它的可塑性極高。AAC作為資訊平台，除資料上的收集，還有很多更為務實的研究計畫。Rodgers舉例，AAC固定會針對新興駐村機構舉辦工作坊、研討會等，又或者即將舉行的年度會議，集結AAC會員單位，一同分享各自經驗。針對藝術家的Be Our Guest計劃，邀請各單位機構，與藝術家分享自家駐村計劃。AAC相信，透過其官網，他們提供藝術家能過濾（filtering）資訊的平台，能使藝術家更為精確地找到適合自己的駐村計劃。
由上述諸多調查中，AAC引出結論，駐村單位的延續性，有個決定性的要素：平衡（Balance）。建立在金錢與使命（Money and Mission）、 風險與穩定（Risk and Stability）、熱情與務實（Passion and Practivism）以及細碎與堅定（Scrappiness and Solidity）上的平衡。然而對於AAC而言，最大的挑戰在於，上述的諸多研究，如何做後續追蹤？每個研究在檯面下都有個浩大工程，就時間與資訊更新彙整層面而言，如何做後續追蹤，使研究結論可以被更新的運用在機構實務面上著實是項挑戰，AAC將持續扮演此角色平台，精進機構間的專業匯流。
Trustee of Alliance of Ar tists Communities, Hermitage Ar tist Retreat Executive Director
The U.S.-based Alliance of Artists Communities (hereafter referred to as AAC) plays an active role similar to that of Res Artis, its global counterpart for artist villages around the world. AAC is a platform for information confluence and integration. The receivers of its services, by definition, include artist villages of every stripe. It not only collects and compiles the information about different villages but also conducts in-depth studies on various issues concerning the operation of an art institution. Moreover, it also serves as an encompassing platform of residence and research for artists from the four corners of the world. As the representative and a member of the board of AAC, Bruce Rodgers not only attended the discussion, but also provided an alternative perspective on AAC in his role as executive director of the Hermitage Artist Retreat (hereafter referred to as Hermitage), an artist village that offers residency opportunities.
AAC’s missions can be classified into three major domains: supplying information about career development, researching the gaps between what is offered and what is needed, and strengthening the horizontal connections among partner institutions. In the discussion, Rodgers treated Hermitage as the point of departure to introduce AAC. He regarded his lack of managerial experience in the field of artist-in-residency as his comparative advantage, because he expected the Hermitage to be established and operated in a less-conventional way that he termed a “curated residency.” The Hermitage was originally operated and managed by a single person. Suffering from such a staff shortage, it was almost impossible for the Hermitage to employ the approach of open calls for applications. Rodgers thought reversely that curated residencies may be of greater help to artists’ career development. By virtue of AAC’s instruction and assistance, the Hermitage is relatively unique as an artist village.
Utilizing a variety of media, AAC provides newly-founded artist villages of different types with the Ultimate Resource Guide for the purpose of helping them simplify the trivial yet complex administrative workload that the initial stage of their development entails. In other words, these institutions use the administrative model as the template for theirs. Rodgers believes that the differences between artist villages and museums or theaters result in the great malleability of the former. As an active platform, AAC has been launching many research projects in addition to collecting information. For example, AAC not only organizes workshops for newly-emerged artist villages on a regular basis, but also holds annual conferences for its member institutions to share their experience. AAC’s program called Be Our Guest is aimed exclusively at artists, through which they can acquire the latest information on the residency opportunities offered by AAC’s member institutions. AAC firmly believes that its official website is a perfect platform for artists to filter information and apply for suitable artist-in-residence programs.
Tokyo Wonder Site 總監
Tokyo Wonder Site（TWS）創辦人暨現任總監今村有策（Yusaku Imamura）認為藝術進駐空間應是一個「具挑戰性且允許失敗的地方」，是展示創造力且不能受限的實驗室，其中需要大量的人際交往與不同於傳統機構的民主狀態。近年來無論茉莉花革命、318學運或雨傘運動，我們皆可觀察到新一輩人對於老舊體制、社會與機構時代的質問，藝術家也注意到全球資本主義與新自由主義的議題，其作品既受到國際、同時也受到地方性的影響，在創作時往往會思考如何回應這兩方，所以必須更專注於創作過程與個人活動，而藝術村便是他們的駐地實驗室，過程包括了研究、對話、製作、展覽、批評，以及以過程為導向的計畫，而其中很重要的部分就是提供藝術家與其他專業人員交換生活與觀點的機會，這也是駐村的重要特性之一。
2001至2013年間，今村曾擔任東京都知事的特殊事務諮詢委員，針對文化政策及東京藝術與文化推廣策略提供建議與指導，他談到「很多國家會培養藝術明星，像日本在泡沫經濟前期，很多藝術家都去東京發展，後來經濟垮下後就沒有藝術家來了。東京實際上可以進口任何東西，甚至是世界級的名作，然而在培育得以發展藝術種子的土壤上是失敗的，一座城市應該要把自己塑造成有創意的地方，但這是亞洲國家缺乏的特徵，城市行銷不是要去製造出品牌，而是要製造多元的環境，政府的作用是確保其基礎和設施的多樣性」。今村表示文化政策總在衡量成效、參與人數，但藝術村根本無法用量化的角度衡量，「我擔任諮詢委員時，發現日本政府沒有完整的系統或策略，也沒有稱職的組織如藝術委員會，能夠提出促進藝術活動的文化政策或法規，因政策方向及組織架構的需求，促使我推動新戰略和成立新組織。」東京文化創意計畫從2008年開始執行，為有效促進文化推廣，東京藝術委員會（Art Council Tokyo）因而設立，試圖鼓動新的藝術決策系統，並銜接公部門和非政府部門的夥伴關係，以構成今村所說的千結（Thousands of Knots）狀態，持續為藝術創造堅實的發展土壤。今村談到許多亞洲國家雖然位置比鄰，但對彼此認識有限，「其實認識鄰國就是認識自己」，而現在有愈來愈多區域性的網絡，如TWS的做法除了自己的空間外，也會往外連結到許多藝博會、雙／三年展，從更大的角色和脈絡協助藝術家和其他單位合作，成為藝術家從亞洲出發的跳板。他認為東京不像紐約、倫敦這些城市有著大規模的美術館、藝術單位，必定要以不同的方式推展藝術環境，它必須發展出與許多小的、自主性的機構單位進行連結的策略，「從很多點連接成線，然後逐漸變成面，這樣要比只跟一個主要機構合作來得有效」，他也強調城市裡「中型規模」藝術機構的重要性，駐村的居住狀態已不是唯一目標，而是要創建新的平台與實驗空間。
Tokyo Wonder Site Director
Yusaku Imamura, the founding and current director of Tokyo Wonder Site (TWS), believes that an artist village should be a “challenging and failure-tolerant place,” a laboratory in which untrammeled creativity is demonstrated. It entails considerable interpersonal communication and a democracy distinct from that in traditional institutions. The Jasmine Revolution, the Sunflower Student Movement, and the Umbrella Movement arose in recent years have made us aware of the fact that the new generation is questioning the systems, societies, and institutions that have been existing since the old times. Artists also noticed the issues concerning global capitalism and neoliberalism. Not only the international context but also the locality exerts significant influences on their works. They therefore tend to contemplate how to respond to these influential forces when creating artworks. Such contemplation further prompts them to focus particularly on their creative processes and personal activities. Against this background, artist villages become testing laboratories for artists. An artist-in-residence program encompasses research, dialogue, production, exhibition, comment, and process-oriented projects. Facilitating the exchange between residential artists and other professionals in terms of their life experiences and opinions also counts as one of the main missions of an artist-in-residence program.
Imamura regards cities as a place with social diversity, where artists can freely collaborate with curators, government-run institutions, artists, communities, universities, and mass media. Imamura proceeded to point out that “an artist village is not so much a dwelling or a place for official cultural exchange as a creative and inspiring environment. To fulfill this vision, we must introduce artists to the curators with whom they can talk and discuss as well as to the facilitators who can help them explore and experiment on the environment.”
An Expanding Network from Points and Lines to a Plane
From 2001 to 2013, Imamura worked as a Counselor on Special Issues to the Governor, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, supervising and advising on the cultural policy and promotion strategy for arts and culture of Tokyo. He mentioned that “many countries, including Japan, are adept at cultivating star artists. Many artists pursued their careers in Tokyo in the early period of Japan’s Bubble Economy, and this trend halted after the economy collapsed. Tokyo could literally import everything including world masterpieces. However, it failed to cultivate the fertile soil for the seeds of art to grow. A city should forge itself into a place that inspires creativity, which is a characteristic that Asian countries commonly lack. Marketing a city is not so much to create a brand as to foster an environment that harbors diversity. The mission of the government is to ensure the diversity of its cultural basis and facilities.” Imamura pointed out that the current cultural policy tends to focus on measuring the effectiveness of activities and the number of participants. However, these quantitative criteria do not apply to assessing artist villages’ performance. “When I served as a counselor to the Governor, I found that the Japanese government had neither adequate systems and strategies nor competent institutions such as art council that could propose cultural policies and legislations to promote artistic activities. The need of direction and structure prompted me to establish new strategies and the new institution. Tokyo Culture Creation Project has started in 2008 and Art Council Tokyo was founded as a result in 2012 with the mission of promoting cultural development and exchange in an effective manner. It aims to encourage new decision-making system of art and forge a partnership between public and private sectors, thereby constructing “thousands of knots” in Imamura’s term as well as providing fertile soil for the seeds of art to grow. Imamura also said that many Asian countries have very little knowledge about one another despite their geographical adjacency. “Knowing one’s neighbors is actually a way to know oneself.” The number of regional network has been increasing in recent years. In addition to providing its own venue for artists, TWS connects outwardly to art expositions, biennials, and triennials, thereby not only helping artists collaborate with other institutions within a broader context but also serving as a springboard of Asian artists’ careers. “Imamura believes that Tokyo’s approach to promote artistic environment must be different from that of New York or London where large-scale art museums and art institutions stand in great numbers. It has to develop a strategy that connects many small yet autonomous organizations.” That is, “it starts from points and lines and finally constitutes a plane, which is a strategy far more effective than cooperating with one major institution.” He also attached importance to medium-scale art institutions in cities. Dwelling in artist villages is no longer the objective of artist-in-residence programs. Rather, it is more about creating new platforms and experimental spaces for the artists in residence.
Residency Unlimited 執行總監
成立於2009年的Residency Unlimited（RU），是一間位於紐約且專門提供藝術家與策展人駐村機會的非營利藝術機構。它能夠連結並協調廣泛的資源，供參與駐村計畫的藝術家、策展人與所有協作者使用。RU執行總監Nathalie Anglès在會議中特別說明關係網絡的塑造如何促成新的協作計畫與幫助各方獲取更多相關資源。換言之，關係網絡即為RU個人化、客製化駐村模式得以成功之關鍵。
RU發展出的新駐村模式不同於需要大量空間的傳統駐村概念。其主要目標是（在網絡連結與作品製作方面）依據駐村藝術家之各種需求，提供有效的客製化支援。2014年RU為駐村藝術家籌辦了120場工作室參訪活動，邀請策展領域與駐村藝術家創作領域相近的專業藝術工作者參加，一方面促進駐村藝術家與外界的交流，另一方面亦幫助他們擴大個人關係網絡。在RU總部座落的360 Court街上，有一個很早便開始經營的共享工作空間，可兼作展覽館與其他活動場地。這個空間非常適合無固定工作室的藝術家（例如數位藝術工作者）使用。若駐村藝術家（例如畫家與雕塑家）需要個人工作室，RU亦能夠迅速透過夥伴組織網絡，為藝術家向RU的駐村計畫夥伴機構（例如Pioneer Works、Artists Alliance、Nars）爭取可使用的工作空間。RU也會提供這些夥伴機構特定協助，作為互惠回饋，例如透過工作室參訪活動，引薦策展人認識夥伴機構的駐村藝術家，這便是RU參與的服務交換形式之一。
Residency Unlimited Executive Director
RU as a hub for Collaboration and Resource Exchange
Founded in 2009, Residency Unlimited (RU) is a New York-based nonprofit art organization hosting residencies for artists and curators, which connects and coordinates a wide range of resources that ultimately benefit all parties involved (artists in residency and collaborators). RU’s Executive Director Nathalie Anglès emphasized in her presentation how the creation of networks leads to new collaborations and access to additional resources. This is the key to RU’s successful individualized customized residencies.
RU offers a different model to the conventional notion of a residency where occupation of space is the primary focus. Our emphasis is to provide enhanced customized support (network and production) and address artists’ needs on a case to case basis. In 2014, we organized 120 studio visits for the artists in residency inviting art professionals whose curatorial interests matched the participating artists’ practice. At 360 Court street, RU’s headquarters, we have chosen from the start to operate a shared work space that can function concurrently as an exhibition and events venue. This space is ideal for artists who don’t have a studio based practice (digital practitioner for example). On the other hand, if an RU artist needs an individual studio space (e.g. painter and sculptor), RU can easily access through its network of partnering organizations additional work space with other residency program partners in New York (e.g., Pioneer Works, Artists Alliance, Nars). In exchange RU provides specific services such as bringing in curators to do studio visits with artists participating in these other residencies. This is a form of exchange of service that RU engages with.
This collaborative strategy aims to broaden RU’s pool of resources by creating alliances with local (New York based) organizations as well as regional and international ones. Each RU partnership is unique. RU will often organize exhibitions of new work by RU artists at its partner institutions’ venues. Such a nomadic strategy of management enhances our mobility and flexibility.
RU as a customized tool for artists
In 2014, RU hosted the residencies of 45 artists and 10 curators. To perfect the level of customization, RU embarks on communication with the artists prior to their arrival, discussing their project and expectations.
During their stay, besides extensive curatorial visits, each artist is offered a production support and an exposure opportunity (exhibition or event) at RU or in another venue. In addition to stimulating more creative ideas and dialogues, the interpersonal networking and exchange also serves as a way to expand RU’s international connections. Besides doing studio visits, RU invites curators to organize exhibitions with artists whose work they are unfamiliar with. This is an interesting exercise for the curator who then has to figure out the possible way of staging an exhibition together. This form of collaboration always produces results way beyond expectation.
Anglès took RU’s popular service Opportunities as an example, that is, RU lists the artist-in-residence programs around the world for artists’ reference. It also adopts the approach of open call for its own artist-inresidence program without practicing any discrimination in favor of a specific type of artists. Anglès showed us a flexible, customized, and mobile strategy of resource utilization. It not only effectively minimizes the expenditure of partner institutions but also accomplishes the mission of an artist village. On a more specific basis, limited resources and small spaces never reduce RU’s potential for development. Rather, such limitations offer it the leverage to create greater opportunities and to fulfill its missions of cultural exchange and creativity stimulation. Nevertheless, the scarcity of resources is not endemic. We have to maximize the value of limited resources in a more active/passionate manner.
Sengupta也介紹Khoj籌募計畫的一部分，是2014年12月曾經與佳士得拍賣公司（CHRISTIE’S）合作「ARTISTS For KHOJ」專拍來籌募其運作的基金。由組織邀請與Khoj淵源深厚的藝術家捐獻其作品做為拍品，其名單不乏具聲望及國際雙年展與美術館大展常客，如卡普爾（Anish Kapoor）、柯爾（Bharti Kher）、古普塔（Subodh Gupta）和 多迪亞（Atul Dodiya）等人。即便這些藝術家已在市場與學術上成功， 卻未稀釋他們希望回饋到藝術產業與非營利機構的企圖，尤其念及 Khoj在這個領域中對於藝術家及創作實踐的融合所做出的努力。所有的拍賣所得成為Khoj的總體基金，通過這樣實際的挹注讓組織朝自給自足的狀態又更接近了一步。由於Khoj的非營利性質讓它過去與經濟利益抑或市場都保持一定的距離，這些堅持也讓組織獲得評論、當代藝術界的一致好評，然而與印度佳士得拍賣的合作其實更開啟了一種可能，以營利為目的的藝術市場也有可能成為非營利當代藝術單位運作的支援與後盾。
Khoj Curator and Programs Manager
As a curator and a project manager at Khoj International Artists’ Association, a New Delhi-based contemporary arts organization, Promona Sengupta enthusiastically introduced this organization that conducts thematic programming around contemporary arts practice. She firstly explicated that the term “Khoj” refers to search, discovery, exploration, research, trace, and inquiry. Since its establishment in 1997, Khoj has been exploring and putting these meanings into practice by undertaking a variety of activities such as international workshops, artist-in-residence programs, seminars, community art, exhibitions, publishing, and symposiums. It has carried out many experimental and transdisciplinary projects, constantly trying to challenge the definitions of contemporary art practice prevailing in India and to extend the boundaries of contemporary artistic creation.
Sophisticated and Precise Fundraising Strategy
As a non-profit organization, Khoj is very active in fundraising and soliciting other forms of support. Its incubation project on non-mainstream art has been enjoying a high reputation. Khoj adopts diversified fundraising strategies by listing the procedures and items of every project in detail, conducting thorough research and developing effective reporting and archiving strategies.. For example, the supporters can opt to invest in specific programs, or purchase their fundraising portfolios and participate in auctions and other fundraising programs, thereby supporting the corpus fund of the organization. . Sengupta also presented a slide that showed a wall covered with the name of supporters who have generously supported Khoj at various points in the organization’s history.
Incubating the Emerging Art in India with the Profit from Auction
The auction ARTISTS for KHOJ in collaboration with CHRISTIE’S, held in December 2014, is a part of Khoj’s fundraising strategy. Khoj encouraged artists who have close ties with Khoj to donate their works for auction. A number of renowned artists such as Anish Kapoor, Bharti Kher, Subodh Gupta, and Atul Dodiya who often participate in international grand exhibitions and biennials echoed this initiative. These artists’ enthusiasm of contributing to the art industry and non-profit organizations is not worn off by their remarkable success in the market and academia because they remember, with gratitude, the support and inspiration that Khoj gave to emerging artists and art practices within the field. All the profits from the auction go towards Khoj’s corpus fund, which greatly facilitates the organization’s self-sufficiency. As a non-profit organization, Khoj is able to maintain critical distance from economic interests and the market, which brings itself high reputation in the field of contemporary art. Its cooperation with the CHRISTIE’S India Sale, in fact suggests a new possibility, that is, the profit-orientated art market might become the support for the operation of non-profit institutions of contemporary art.
Assistant Professor, International Master of the Arts Program in Cultural and Creative Industries (IMCCI), Taipei National University of the Arts
Between 2004 and 2012, SU Yao-Hua successively served as the director of Taipei Artist Village, Grass Mountain Artist Village, and Treasure Hill Artist Village. Based on her extensive professional experience of artist village management, she not only charted the historical trajectory that artist villages in Taiwan have followed since 1995, but also assessed their prospects in the future. The public understanding and imagination of artist villages in Taiwan have been echoing governmental policy on reutilizing disused spaces. Most of these disused spaces are the assets held by governments, and an increasing amount of private properties have been invested in artist-in-residence programs in recent years. Nevertheless, the core value of an artist-inresidence program lies in the networking, cultivation, growth, and career development of “humans.” For example, the first artist-in-residence program in Taiwan was initiated by three contemporary ceramic artists in order to accommodate their demand for collaboration. They repurposed a chicken coop into a studio, known as the Bamboo Curtain Studio today. The three artists’ original intention in establishing this studio was to get their artistic projects off the ground. It implied that this place was not designed simply as an artistic studio, but also as a place where contemporary artistic thinking and innovative artistic practice begin. Accordingly, to operate and manage an artist village entail critical considerations on a riotous profusion of issues ranging from the cultivation of artistic practitioners and the presentation of artworks to educational promotion, audience outreach, and the consultation service on career development.
Supporting the idea of reutilizing disused spaces, LUNG Ying-Tai, former Commissioner of Department of Cultural Affairs, Taipei City Government, further suggested in 2001 that an artist village should serve as a temporary residence and studio for foreign artists as well as a platform for their dialogue and exchange with the local community. Her suggestion was the very foundation on which Taipei Artist Village was established. Taipei City Government began to repurpose some of its disused assets into artist villages, among which Taipei Artist Village was made the first institution devoted in artist-in-residence programs. It is located in the downtown area of Taipei with easy accessibility. As a platform for international artists, Taipei Artist Village was surprisingly unaware of its need for inter-community connection until it began to run the Grass Mountain Artist Village located in Yangmingshan National Park. The significance of regional management and connection was highlighted particularly at the time around the opening of the Treasure Hill Artist Village. The development from an artist village located in the downtown area to three artist villages of different characters in different places prompts us to contemplate the contribution that an artist village can make to the society. Should it serve as a preserver of memories, or a cultural management method for architectural conservation? Sustainable development of artist villages was a crucial issue at that time, and so is it nowadays. In view of the fact that artists may be unable to fulfill some of their projects on their own, Artist-in-Residence Taipei is of great value to them since it offers not only working spaces but also relevant administrative assistance in realizing their creative ideas.
Artist-in-residence programs lay greater stress on processes than on immediate results. Thus, their overall operation focuses not so much on consumption as on the production of art and culture. In addition, these programs tend to be highly experimental, which makes it extremely hard to attract domestic sponsors. This harsh reality implies their growing dependence on governmental subsidies. The Ministry of Culture grants artist villages subsidies on a case by case basis, that is, according to the size of space and the general requirement of the target program. This allocation approach poses a significant challenge to the coordination between hardware (i.e. disused spaces) and software (i.e. artists). Over the past decade, Taiwan has not only made considerable effort to develop new spaces where artists can fulfill their projects, but also taken the utmost care for local revitalization. Nonetheless, defining artist-in-residence programs in a broader sense is equally important to creating more spaces. It does not imply a demand for greater resources, but the formation of information flux as the foundation for knowledge economy. Nowadays, artist-in-residence programs no longer echo the governmental policy that aims to reutilizing disused spaces. Nor do they simply support independent contemporary artists in the corners of different cities. The Artist Village Alliance of Taiwan opens up the possibility for collaboration among artist villages of every stripe. Artists are allowed to stay in partner institutions where they engage in resource- and informationexchange. The alliance also facilitates the production of knowledge, making artist-in-residence programs a training activity and therefore a research object which in turn lays a sound foundation for the programs and unlocks the partner institutions’ great potential as art museums and theaters. In the ecology of art, we need museums for exhibitions and theaters for performances. Artist-in-residence programs are also indispensable not only because they integrate different forms of creations but also because they bridge the gap between art and society and open up a space for dialogue.